Here you will find our archive of all the nucleotide related papers that have been published in recognised scientific reviews that do not fit into the 3 main categories. Once again, simply click on any title that you wish to explore further to view an abstract where available. Publications are listed alphabetically by author, the most recent additions to our collection are highlighted in orange to aid our regular visitors.

Abbaslou Y, Zahmatkesh D, Mahjoubi E, Yazdi MH, Beiranvand H, Gorjidooz M. Nucleotide Supplementation to Whole Milk Has Beneficial Effects on Post-Weaning Holstein Calf Performance. Animals (Basel). 2021 Jan 18; 11(1): 218.

Abstract: The positive effects of nucleotide (NU) supplementation in milk replacer have been elucidated in infants and in dairy calves; however, NU addition to whole milk has not been evaluated previously. This study aimed to assess NU supplementation in the whole milk on calf growth and health. Thirty Holstein calves (body weight: 39.1 ± 1.0 kg; 3 d after birth) were randomly assigned to the following treatments: whole milk without any supplementation (NU0), whole milk + 0.5 g/d added a NU-containing supplement to whole milk (NUCS0.5), and whole milk + 1 g/d added a NU-containing supplement to whole milk (NUCS1). Calves were weaned at d 55 and stayed on study until d 75. Calves had free access to feed and water throughout the study. Dry matter intakes (DMI) were similar among treatments (p > 0.05) during the pre-weaning period; however, increasing NU resulted in a linear (p < 0.05) increase in DMI during the post weaning period (2158, 2432, and 2518 g/d for NU0, NUCS0.5, and NUCS1, respectively). Treatments did not affect body weight (BW) at the first and second month of study, but final BW linearly increased as NU was added (87.1, 90.6, and 95.4 kg for NU0, NUCS0.5, and NUCS1, respectively). Neither pre-weaning average daily gain nor post-weaning average daily gain was affected by treatments; accordingly, feed efficiency was similar among treatment groups. Days with loose fecal score were linearly decreased as NU was added to whole milk during the first month of life, while the fecal score did not differ among treatments until the end of the study. No difference was observed in the skeletal growth of calves in the current study. Therefore, it can be concluded that NU supplementation in the whole milk has some beneficial effects on calf performance in terms of final BW, post-weaning DMI, and less days with loose feces.

Added to the N4H Database 20/10/2021

Art, t, et al. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a ‘probiotic’ in horses during training. Vet Res (1994) 25 261-370.

Abstract: Summary. Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing®) once a day while a group of 5 horses received a placebo. All other conditions were similar for both groups. During each SET, the oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, tidal volume (inspired volume), respiratory rate and expired minute volume were obtained using 2 ultrasonic pneumotochographs and a mass spectrometer. All the parameters were the mean of the values calculated during the last 20s of the SET. Heart rate was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for various biochemical parameters. In both groups, training induced significant modification in most of the cardio-respiratory parameters, ie peak oxygen uptake, peak carbon dioxide output, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation/min to oxygen-uptake ratio and oxygen-uptake to heart ratio. After the 3-week detraining period, most of the values were again similar to the pre-training values in both groups. However, the training-induced modifications of most of the cardio-respiratory parameters occurred earlier and were proportionally greater in the probiotic-treated group than in the control. The respiratory coefficent decreased in the control but not in the treated group. All other parameters changed similarly in both groups. This suggests that Bioracing® could modify the physiological effects of training by improving some aerobic metabolic capacities for carbohydrate utilization, but that this effect occurs only during training and not during periods of physical inactivity.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/2008

Bester AC, Roniger M, Oren YS, Im MM, Sarni D, Chaoat M, Bensimon A, Zamir G, Shewach DS, Kerem B. Nucleotide deficiency promotes genomic instability in early stages of cancer development. Cell. 2011 Apr 29;145(3):435-46.

Abstract: Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by stress on DNA replication. The molecular basis for replication perturbation in this context is currently unknown. We studied the replication dynamics in cells in which a regulator of S phase entry and cell proliferation, the Rb-E2F pathway, is aberrantly activated. Aberrant activation of this pathway by HPV-16 E6/E7 or cyclin E oncogenes significantly decreased the cellular nucleotide levels in the newly transformed cells. Exogenously supplied nucleosides rescued the replication stress and DNA damage and dramatically decreased oncogene-induced transformation. Increased transcription of nucleotide biosynthesis genes, mediated by expressing the transcription factor c-myc, increased the nucleotide pool and also rescued the replication-induced DNA damage. Our results suggest a model for early oncogenesis in which uncoordinated activation of factors regulating cell proliferation leads to insufficient nucleotides that fail to support normal replication and genome stability.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12

Burnstock G. Purinergic signalling in the reproductive system in health and disease. Purinergic Signalling. 2014 Mar; 10(1): 157-87.

Abstract: There are multiple roles for purinergic signalling in both male and female reproductive organs. ATP, released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves, contracts smooth muscle via P2X1 receptors in vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and uterus, as well as in blood vessels. Male infertility occurs in P2X1 receptor knockout mice. Both short- and long-term trophic purinergic signalling occurs in reproductive organs. Purinergic signalling is involved in hormone secretion, penile erection, sperm motility and capacitation, and mucous production. Changes in purinoceptor expression occur in pathophysiological conditions, including pre-eclampsia, cancer and pain.

Added to the N4H database 17/02/2021

Burnstock G. Purinergic signalling in the gastrointestinal tract and related organs in health and disease. Purinergic Signalling. 2014 Mar; 10(1): 3-50.

Abstract: Purinergic signalling plays major roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of digestive organs. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), together with nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide, is a cotransmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. P2X and P2Y receptors are widely expressed in myenteric and submucous enteric plexuses and participate in sympathetic transmission and neuromodulation involved in enteric reflex activities, as well as influencing gastric and intestinal epithelial secretion and vascular activities. Involvement of purinergic signalling has been identified in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, ischaemia, diabetes and cancer. Purinergic mechanosensory transduction forms the basis of enteric nociception, where ATP released from mucosal epithelial cells by distension activates nociceptive subepithelial primary afferent sensory fibres expressing P2X3 receptors to send messages to the pain centres in the central nervous system via interneurons in the spinal cord. Purinergic signalling is also involved in salivary gland and bile duct secretion.

Added to the N4H Database 17/02/2021

Burrell R, et al. Replication stress links structural and numerical cancer chromosomal instability. Nature 494, 492-496, February 28, 2013.

Abstract: Cancer chromosomal instability (CIN) results in an increased rate of change of chromosome number and structure and generates intratumour heterogeneity1,2. CIN is observed in most solid tumours and is associated with both poor prognosis and drug resistance3,4. Understanding a mechanistic basis for CIN is therefore paramount. Here we find evidence for impaired replication fork progression and increased DNA replication stress in CIN+ colorectal cancer (CRC) cells relative to CIN- CRC cells, with structural chromosome abnormalities precipitating chromosome missegregation in mitosis. We identify three new CIN-suppressor genes (PIGN (also known as MCD4), MEX3C (RKHD2) and ZNF516 (KIAA0222)) encoded on chromosome 18q that are subject to frequent copy number loss in CIN+CRC. Chromosome 18q loss was temporally associated with aneuploidy onset at the adenoma-carcinoma transition. CIN-suppressor gene silencing leads to DNA replication stress, structural chromosome abnormalities and chromosome missegregation. Supplementing cells with nucleosides, to alleviate replication-associated damage5, reduces the frequency of chromosome segregation errors after CIN-suppressor gene silencing, and attenuates segregation errors and DNA damage in CIN+ cells. These data implicate a central role for replication stress in the generation of structural and numerical CIN, which may inform new therapeutic approaches to limit intratumour heterogeneity.

Added to the N4H Database 13/05/2020

Chen TH et al. Effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture on memory in aged and young memory deficient mice. Life Sci. 1996;59(21):PL325-30.

Abstract: Intestinal mucosa, bone marrow hematopoietic cells and brain have limited capacity for the de novo synthesis of nucleosides (NSs) and nucleotides (NTs). Whereas the role of dietary NS and NT in the former two tissues is known, it is not known in the brain. Therefore we studied the effect of dietary NS and NT mixture on memory in aged mice (Experiment 1) and young memory deficient mice (Experiment 2). Memory retention was studied by step-through type passive avoidance performance (maximum 180 seconds). In Experiment 1 aged (7 month old) senescence accelerated mice (SAM) were fed 20% casein diet (control) or this diet supplemented with 0.5% NS/NT mixture for 12 weeks. Memory was studied 1, 2 and 3 days after the electric shock (punishment). In Experiment 2, young (1 month old) memory deficient mice (Dull mice) and normal mice (ddY mice) were fed the same diets as those in Experiment 1 for 12 weeks. Memory retention was studied 1 and 3 days after the punishment. In the aged SAM the average time of avoidance and also the percentages of successful memory 2 and 3 days after the punishment were significantly higher in the NS/NT diet group than the control diet group (P < 0.05). In the Dull mice percentage of successful memory was higher in the NS/NT diet group than in the control group 3 days after the punishment; however, such an effect was not observed in the normal mice. These results suggest that insufficient endogenous supply of NSs and NTs may be responsible for the factor of memory deficiency with aging or of genetical memory deficiency, which can be improved by the dietary administration of NSs and NTs.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12

Chen TH et al. A Nucleoside-Nucleotide Mixture May Reduce Memory Deterioration in Old Senescence-Accelerated Mice. J Nutr. 2000;130:3085-3089.

Abstract: We investigated the effects of a mixture of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides (NS + NT) on memory in 1- and 7-mo-old senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). Memory retention was studied with passive avoidance (step-through) and active avoidance (shuttle) tests. For 14 wk, mice in the control groups were fed a 20 g of casein/100 g diet, whereas the NS + NT groups were fed this diet supplemented with a 0.5 g of NS + NT mixture/100 g. All mice were killed at wk 14, and we studied the brain histopathology. Lipofuscin, monovacuoles and multiple vacuoles of various brain regions were measured. Body weight, food intake and ambulatory activity did not differ between the control and NS + NT groups. In old mice, the time of passive avoidance was significantly higher in the NS + NT group than in the control group at d 1 and 7 (P < 0.05). However, such an effect of NS + NT was not observed in young mice. In the active avoidance test, the incidence of successful avoidance in old mice was higher in the NS + NT group than in the control group at d 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). The percentages of specific brain cells containing lipofuscin were lower in NS + NT groups than in the control groups in both young and old mice (P < 0.05). The number of monovacuoles and multiple vacuoles in specific brain regions tended to be lower (P = 0.1-0.25) in NS + NT than in control groups, with significant differences in the microvacuoles of the middle cortex of young mice and in the multiple vacuoles in the hind cortex of old mice (P < 0.05). These results suggest that increased dietary NS + NT may be associated with decreases in the age-induced deterioration of brain morphology and certain memory tasks.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12

Chen T, Wang M et al. A nucleoside-nucleotide mixture may reduce memory deterioration in old mice. 2000 American Society of Nutritional Sciences.

Abstract: We investigated the effects of a mixture of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides (NS + NT) on memory in 1- and 7-mo-old senescence -accelerated mice (SAM). Memory retention was studied with passive avoidance (step-through) and active avoidance (shuttle) tests. For 14 wk, mice in the control groups were fed a 20 g of casein/100 g diet, whereas the NS + NT groups were fed this diet supplemented with 0.5 g of NS + NT mixture/100 g. All mice were killed at wk14, and we studied the brain histopathology, Lipfuscin, monovacuoles and multiple vacuoles of various brain regions were measured. Body weight, food intake and ambulatory activity did not differ between the control and NS + NT groups. In old mice, the time of passive avoidance was significantly higher in the NS + NT group than in the control group at d 1 and 7 (P < 0.05). However, such an effect of NS + NT was not observed in young mice. In the active avoidance test, the incidence of successful avoidance in old mice was higher in the NS + NT group than in the control group at d 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). The percentages of specific brain cells containing lipofuscin were lower in NS + NT groups than in the control groups in both young and old mice (P < 0.05). The number of monovacuoles and multiple vacuoles in specific brain regions tended to be lower (P = 0.1 - 0.25) in NS + NT than in control groups, with significant differences in the microvacuoles of the middle cortex of young mice and in the multiple vacuoles in the hind cortex of old mice (P < 0.05). These results suggest that increased dietary NS + NT may be associated with decreases in the age-induced deterioration of brain morphology and certain memory tasks.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Delfarah A, Parish S, Junge JA, Yang J, Seo F, Li S, Mac J, Wang P, Fraser SE, Graham NA. Inhibition of nucleotide synthesis promotes replicative senescence of human mammary epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 2019; 294(27), 10564-10578.

Abstract: Cellular senescence is a mechanism by which cells permanently withdraw from the cell cycle in response to stresses including telomere shortening, DNA damage, or oncogenic signalling. Senescent cells contribute to both age-related degeneration and hyperplastic pathologies, including cancer. In culture, normal human epithelial cells enter senescence after a limited number of cell divisions, known as replicative senescence. Here, to investigate how metabolic pathways regulate replicative senescence, we used LC-MS–based metabolomics to analyze senescent primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). We did not observe significant changes in glucose uptake or lactate secretion in senescent HMECs. However, analysis of intracellular metabolite pool sizes indicated that senescent cells exhibit depletion of metabolites from nucleotide synthesis pathways. Furthermore, stable isotope tracing with 13C-labeled glucose or glutamine revealed a dramatic blockage of flux of these two metabolites into nucleotide synthesis pathways in senescent HMECs. To test whether cellular immortalization would reverse these observations, we expressed telomerase in HMECs. In addition to preventing senescence, telomerase expression maintained metabolic flux from glucose into nucleotide synthesis pathways. Finally, we investigated whether inhibition of nucleotide synthesis in proliferating HMECs is sufficient to induce senescence. In proliferating HMECs, both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), a rate-limiting enzyme in dNTP synthesis, induced premature senescence with concomitantly decreased metabolic flux from glucose into nucleotide synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that nucleotide synthesis inhibition plays a causative role in the establishment of replicative senescence in HMECs.

Added to the N4H Database 18/09/2019

Duchen K, Thorell L. Nucleotide and Polyamine levels in colostrums and mature milk. Scandinavian University press 1999. ISSN 0803-5253.

Abstract: The prophylactic benefit of breastfeeding against atopic disease is still controversial. It seems to be limited to infants with genetic propensities to allergy in combination with late solid food introduction. Lower levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk have been related to atopy in children, stressing a non-specific role of nutritional components in the development of atopy. Nucleotides and polyamines have been related to intestinal integrity and immune function in infancy. The main sources of these nutrients are human milk nucleotides and polyamines in colostrums and mature milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers and the relationship to sensitization against egg, milk or cat in their first year of life. The nucleotide/nucleoside and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC in colostrums and in milk at 3 mo of lactation from mothers of 21 atopic and 14 non-atopic children. Among the mothers, 10 were atopic and 25 non-atopic. The nucleotides cytidine monphosphate (CMP), uridine monphosphate (UMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophostphate (GMP) and the nucleosides cytidine and uridine were detected in human milk. In colostrums, CMP dominated, and the levels increased in mature milk, while the levels of the other compounds remained constant. The nucleotide/nucleoside composition was similar in colostrums from all mothers independent of the development of the sensitization in their babies, except for the higher cytidine levels in mature milk from atopic mothers of atopic babies, as compared to healthy mothers of atopic babies. The polyamine levels were similar in colostrum from atopic and not-atopic mothers. However, putrescine and spermine levels were lower in mature milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. No relationship was found between milk putrecine and spermine levels and development of atopy in the children. In conclusion, low levels of human milk putrescine and spermine seem to be related to maternal atopy.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Fontana L, Moreeira E et al. Dietary nucleotides correct plasma and liver microsomal fatty acid alterations in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide. Journal of Hepatology 1998; 28: 662-669.

Background/Aims: Dietary nucleotides modulate a number of metabolic processes, including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary nucleotides on plasma and liver microsomal fatty acid profiles in a rat model of liver cirrhosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide.
Methods: Fifty-four female Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: rats in the thioacetamide group (n=45) were given 300 mg thioacetamide/l in their drinking water for 4 months, and rats in the control group (n=9) received water during the same period. After 4 months of treatment, 9 rats in each group were killed. The remaining rats in the thioacetamide group were divided into two new groups, and the animals in each were allowed to recover for 1 or 2 weeks on either a nucleotide-free diet or the same diet supplemented with 50 mg of each of the following: AMP, GMP, CMP, IMP and UMP per 100g diet.
Results: Saturated (mainly stearic acid), monounsaturated, and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly arachidonic acid), and also the unsaturation index decreased in plasma of rats with experimental cirrhosis. Administration of the diet supplemented with nucleotides to thioacetamide-treated rats corrected plasma levels of saturated n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the unsaturation index. In liver microsomes, the cirrhotic rats showed lower levels of protein and higher levels of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids. Protein concentrations and levels of all the above-mentioned fatty acids were corrected with the nucleotide-enriched diet.
Conclusions: Dietary nucleotides contribute to correcting plasma and liver microsomal fatty acid alterations in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by chronic oral administration of thioacetamide.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Gennip, A. Defects in metabolism of prines and pyrimidines. Ned Tijdschr Klin chem. 1999; 24: 171-175.

Abstract: Defects in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines are not well-known in the general hospital. For this reason relatively few patients suffering from these diseases are being diagnosed. However, at present 27 different defects of purine- and pyrimidine metabolism have already been documented. Clinically, these defects are not easily recognised, at least for the larger part, because of non-specific symptoms. Therefore, the assistance of a clinical chemistry laboratory specialized in inborn errors is indispensable to discover most of these defects. This review describes the various biochemical and clinical aspects of the defects of purine and pyrimidine metabolism and provides a guide for their detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Guerra AN, Gavala ML, Chung HS, Bertics PJ. Nucleotide receptor signalling and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Purinergic Signal. 2007 Mar;3(1-2):39-51. Epub 2007 Jan 6.

Abstract: Elevated levels of extracellular nucleotides are present at sites of inflammation, platelet degranulation and cellular damage or lysis. These extracellular nucleotides can lead to the activation of purinergic (nucleotide) receptors on various leukocytes, including monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. In turn, nucleotide receptor activation has been linked to increased cellular production and release of multiple inflammatory mediators, including superoxide anion, nitric oxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present review, we will summarize the evidence that extracellular nucleotides can facilitate the generation of multiple ROS by leukocytes. In addition, we will discuss several potential mechanisms by which nucleotide-enhanced ROS production may occur. Delineation of these mechanisms is important for understanding the processes associated with nucleotide-induced antimicrobial activities, cell signalling, apoptosis, and pathology.

Added to the N4H database 17/09/09

Grimble GK. Nucleic acid turnover and methyl metabolism: closer relativds than previously thought. Current Opinion in clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2000.

Abstract: No abstract available.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Grimble G, Malik S, Boza J. Methods of measuring tissue RNA turn-over. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2000.

Abstract: Measuring RNA turnover is important because of the significance of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA in tissue protein synthesis. Changes in turnover of each of these species precede important cellular events such as hormone or cytokine action or cell-division itself. Isotopic methods have relied on decay of pulse-labelled RNA or on incorporation of isotopically-labelled precursors. However, recycling of labels may lead to under or overestimation of synthesis rates respectively. The labelling of the intracellular precursor pool must be known if accurate RNA synthesis rates are to be calculated from the degree of incorporation. However, the intracellular nucleotide pools may be anatomically or metabolically compartmented (i.e. via de novo or salvage synthesis routes) and this complicates many study designs. The use of[methyl-14C]- or [methyl-3H]methionine as a means of labelling methylated nucleosides in RNA and protein simultaneously is described in addition to new stable isotopic techniques based on 13C-glycine as a de novo label. Urinary excretion of the numerous modified nucleosides in cellular RNA can be used to calculate whole-body turnover rates of each of the major RNA species. Examples of the effects of critical-illness and glutamine supplementation on RNA turnover are given. We conclude by suggesting that whole-body RNA turnover rates have been significantly underestimated and that this has implications for nutritional therapy, especially with regard to nucleotide supplementation.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Hansmann G, Ihling C et al. Nucleotide-evoked relaxation of human coronary artery. Elsevier European Journal of Pharmacology 359 (1998) 59-76.

Abstract: Endothelium-dependent dilation of coronary blood vessels in response to ATP and related nucleotides has been demonstrated in various animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible relaxant effect of ATP, the adenine nucleotides 2-methylthio ATP (MeSATP) and adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS), and pyrimidine nucleotide UTP in isolated human coronary artery. In endothelium-intact rings of human coronary artery precontracted with K+ (20-40 mM), the nucleotides caused relaxation. Average maximal percentage relaxations and average EC50 values (concentrations causing half-maximal relaxation) were 89% and 47.1 mM for ATP, 28% and 0.3mM for MeSATP, 35% and 0.6 mM for ADPbetaS, and 49% and 1.6 mM for UTP. For each of the four agonists, the potency to elicit relaxation varied greatly between individual rings, so that equi-relaxing concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the sensitivities to ATP and UTP, when tested in the same ring, were not correlated. Mechanical removal of the endothelium as well as NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 30 mM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, abolished the relaxation caused by MrSATP, ADPbetaS and UTP and greatly attenuated the response to lower concentrations of ATP(3.2-320 mM), but high concentrations of ATP (320 and 1000 mM) caused relaxation also in endotheluim-denuded preparations and in the presence of L-NAME. High concentrations of ADPbetaS (32 and 100 mM) and UTP (320 and 1000 mM) caused contraction of endothelium-denuded preparations. Thus, extracellular nucleotides cause endothelium-dependent, primarily nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of human coronary artery. ATP in addition causes endothelium-independent relaxation. The receptors activated by the nucleotides appear to be unevenly distributed on the coronary endothelium.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Hertrampf. Nucleotides - Less Stress. Aqua Culture Asia Pacific Dec 2003.

Abstract: No abstract available.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Hertamph.Nucleotides in asian seabass. Aqua Culture AsiaPacific Magazine, Nov-Dec 2006.

Abstract: No abstract available.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Hupertan V, Neuzillet Y, Stücker O, Pons C, Leammel E, Lebrett T. Effects of nucleotides adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate in combination with L-arginine on male rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. International Journal of Andrology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01290.

Abstract: Purines and more specifically adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have a strong relaxant effect on smooth muscle cells of the dog, rabbit and human corpus cavernosum, to approximately the same degree as nitric oxide (NO). However, purines are considered as modulators of erectile function rather than key mediators. This suggests that the use of purines combined with NO donors could be effective to treat some specific erectile disorders. The relaxation induced by the combination of l-arginine (Arg), a natural substrate for NO synthase, was assessed with a purine-nucleotide (AMP, ATP) on a rabbit corpus cavernosum model, to determine if these substances could potentiate each other's effect. When a pre-contraction was induced by phenylephrine, AMP alone induced a 43% CC relaxation rate and ATP alone a 26% rate. The relaxation rate induced by Arg was lower in comparison (8% at 5.10(-4) m vs. 25% at AMP 5.10(-4) m and 15% at ATP 5.10(-4) m). NO synthase inhibitor n-nitro-l-arginine did not modify the relaxing effect provoked by AMP suggesting that the mechanism of action of this nucleotide does not involve the NO pathway. The combination of Arg at 5.10(-4) m with either AMP or ATP at different doses ranging from 5.10(-4) to 10(-3) m significantly enhanced the relaxing response reaching rates of 62 and 80% respectively, leading to a synergistic effect. The present data indicate that a 'NO donor' combined with an 'adenosine donor' could be an effective therapeutic approach.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12

Jain KK. Stability and delivery of RNA via the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Drug Deliv. 2008 Jan;5(1):27-31

Abstract: Oral RNA has been used in the past as a nutritional supplement as well as a therapeutic agent for several disorders. It is difficult to validate any of the therapeutic claims in the absence of scientific studies and in view of the instability of orally administered RNA. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract remains questionable. Most of the current efforts in relation to oral RNA are devoted to oral administration of siRNA for therapeutic purposes. A hypothesis is presented of the usefulness of RNA as a nutraceutical. After review of the available literature, role of mRNA in the body, and various routes of administration, suggestions are made for possible methods to improve delivery of RNA and to study its pharmacokinetics. There is commercial potential for such a product if absorption by oral route can be verified as it is easy to administer and can be produced at lower cost than intravenous preparations.

Added to the N4H Database 30/10/09

Lee DN, Liu SR, Chen YT, Wang RC, Lin SY, Weng CF. Effects of diets supplemented with organic acids and nucleotides on growth, immune responses and digestive tract development in weaned pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2007 Dec;91(11-12):508-18

Abstract: Sixty-eight (Experiment 1, 46 days feeding) and sixteen (Experiment 2, 21 days feeding) 21-days-old weaned pigs were allotted to four dietary treatments including control, 0.6% organic acids (OA), 0.1% nucleotides (NA) and 0.6% OA plus 0.1% NA for determining the dietary effects. In Experiment 1, OA enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation on day 28 and 46. The plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) A level was elevated by OA (p < 0.06) and NA (p < 0.07), respectively. In Experiment 2, NA increased plasma IgM level, and had an interactive effect with OA on ileal Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte proliferation, bile and plasma IgA levels, and jejunal crypt depth. NA elevated gastric pepsin and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activities, however, decreased ileal aminopeptidase N, sucrase or maltase activity. These results suggest that OA and NA have synergistically enhanced the gut-associated lymphocyte responses and NA modulates the digestive tract development of weaned pigs.

Added to the N4H Database 28/01/2010

Leite H, Moreira-Vaz et al. The influence of DN and long chain PUFA on the incorporation of archidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis. Archivos Latinoamerican de Nutritcion. Vol. 50, No. 3, 2000.

Abstract: The purposes of this study were to determine: a) the incorporation of labeled [3H] arachidonic acid on the intestinal mucosa, the liver and plasma, after 1,3 and 5 hours of administration, b) preferential incorporation by different tissues, c) and the effects on experimental rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis, after four weeks of a dietary supplementation with nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 209 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and TAA group). The TAA group was given 300 mg of thioacetamide/L, in their drinking water for four months. After this period, a sample of 6 rats were taken from each group and examined, to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes of the experimental model, and 36 rats were taken to determine the incorporation of radioactivity by the groups. The rest of the animals were divided into four subgroups. Each group, receiving a supplementary diet with only long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or nucleotides or neither, for 4 weeks. After four months of thioacetamide, the incorporation of the [3H] arachidonic acid showed: a) an increased within 3 h in the intestinal mucosa, b) a decreased in the liver after 3 to 5 h c) and a drastic decrease in the plasma after 3 to 5 h. With a dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides combined, there was a decrease of accumulate [3H] arachidonic acid in the intestine and a increase in the liver and plasma. The simultaneous supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides was beneficial in the reversal of abnormalities of the lipid metabolism, in this experimental model of liver cirrhosis.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Leonardi, M et al. Effect of a nucleotide-enriched diet on the immune system, plasma cortisol and ... in juvenile rainbow trout. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 23(2), 2003, 51.

Abstract: The influence of a nucleotide-enriched diet on the immune system, plasma cortisol levels and resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) was evaluated in infected juvenile rainbow trout. Non-infected fish were sampled monthly and subgroups injected with the IPN virus (IPNV) at days 60 and 120 after feeding trial onset were sampled one week after injection. Immune responsiveness was assessed by mitogen-induced lymphocyte polyclonal expansion; stress levels were measured by plasma cortisol levels using radio-immuno-assay (RIA) and pathogen presence by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Non-infected trout, fed with the nucleotide diet, showed higher stimulation indexes of both “B” and “T” lymphocytes after 3 months and normal plasma cortisol levels. Results in trout infected with IPNV, indicate that the nucleotide diet was able to: a) stimulate only “B” lymphocytes and b) decrease plasma cortisol levels. All IPNV-injected and normal diet fed trout died after one week, whereas all the fish in the nucleotide enriched diet subgroup survived. All non-infected fish survived in both normal and enriched diet subgroups. It can be concluded that a nucleotide-enriched diet supplied prior to IPNV infections, is able to stimulate the humoral immune response and decrease elevated stress levels, probably caused by the disease.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Leung K-Y, De Castro SCP, Savery D, Copp AJ, Greene NDE. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse. Brain. 2013 Sep; 136(9): 2836-2841.

Abstract: Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

Added to the N4H Database 27/01/2021

Liao, S. F., M. J. Alman, E. S. Vanzant, E. D. Miles, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, and J. C. Matthews. Basal expression of nucleoside transporter mrna differs among small intestinal epithelia of beef steers and is differentially altered by ruminal or abomasal infusion of starch hydrolysate. J. Dairy Sci. 91: 1570-1584.

Abstract: In ruminants, microbial-derived nucleic acids are a major source of N and are absorbed as nucleosides by small intestinal epithelia. Although the biochemical activities of 2 nucleoside transport systems have been described for cattle, little is known regarding the regulation of their gene expression. This study was conducted to test 2 hypotheses: (1) the small intestinal epithelia of beef cattle differentially express mRNA for 3 concentrative (CNT1, 2, 3) and 2 equilibrative (ENT1, 2) nucleoside transporters (NT), and (2) expression of these NT is responsive to small intestine luminal supply of rumen-derived microbes (hence, nucleosides), energy (cornstarch hydrolysate, SH), or both. Eighteen ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (260 +/- 17 kg of BW) were fed an alfalfa cube-based diet at 1.33 NEm requirement. Six steers in each of 3 periods were blocked byBW(heavy vs. light). Within each block, 3 steers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 6): ruminal and abomasal water infusion (control), ruminal SH infusion/abomasal water infusion, or ruminal water infusion/abomasal SH infusion. The dosage of SH infusion amounted to 20% of ME intake. After a 14- or 16-d infusion period, steers were slaughtered, and duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia were harvested for total RNA extraction and the relative amounts of mRNA expressed were determined using real-time RTPCR quantification methodologies. All 5 NT mRNA were found expressed by each epithelium, but their abundance differed among epithelia. Specifically, jejunal expression of all 5 NT mRNA was higher than that by the ileum, whereas jejunal expression of CNT1, CNT3, and ENT1 mRNA was higher, or tended to be higher, than duodenal expression. Duodenal expression of CNT2, CNT3, and ENT2 mRNA was higher than ileal expression. With regard to SH infusion treatments, ruminal infusion increased duodenal expression of CNT3 (67%), ENT1 (51%), and ENT2 (39%) mRNA and ileal expression of CNT3 (210%) and ENT2 (65%) mRNA. Abomasal infusion increased (54%) ileal expression of ENT2 mRNA and tended to increase (50%) jejunal ENT2 mRNA expression. This study has uniquely characterized the pattern of NT mRNA expression by growing beef cattle and found that the mRNA abundance for CNT3, ENT1, and ENT2 in small intestinal epithelia can be increased by increasing the luminal supply of nucleotides (CNT3, ENT1, ENT2) or glucose (ENT2).

Added to the N4H Database 28/01/2010

Novak, D. Carver, J et al. Dietary Nucleotides affect hepatic growth and composition in the weanling mouse. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 18:62-66,1994.

Abstract: The effect of dietary nucleotides upon hepatic growth and composition was examined in weanling mice. For 5 weeks, mice were fed either Purina Rat Chow, a nucleotide-free diet (NT-), a nucleotide-free diet supplemented with a mixture of five nucleotides (0.21% w/w), (NT+) or a nucleotide-free diet supplemented with andenosine 5'-monophosphate (0.0425% w/w) (NTA). Hepatic cholesterol and lipid phosphorous were significantly higher, whereas liver weight (expressed as a percentage of body weight), and glycogen were lower in animals fed NT- vs all other groups. NTA-fed animals presented a greater contrast to the NT- group than did animals fed the mixture of nucleotides. Liver fatty acid composition and distribution of phospholipid subclasses were not affected by dietary nucleotide supplementation. Dietary nucleotide supplementation in weanling mice affects hepatic growth and composition; adenosine 5'-monophosphate may play a unique role in these effects.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Ostojic SM, Idrizovic K, Stojanovic MD. Sublingual nucleotides prolong run time to exhaustion in young physically active men. Nutrients. 2013 Nov 21; 5(11): 4776-85.

Abstract: Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males.

Added to the N4H Database 27/02/2021

Rodrí­guez-Serrano F, Rí­os A, Marchal JA, Caba O, Martínez-Amat A, Prados J, Melguizo C, Ortiz R, Perán M, Boulaiz H, Vélez C, Alvarez P, Aránega A Differentiation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells Mediated by Cell Confluence and/or Exogenous Nucleoside Supplementation.Cells Tissues Organs. 2010 Jan 14.

Abstract: Nucleotides (NT) and nucleosides (NS) play a key role in gastrointestinal development and in enterocyte healing after tissue damage. Exogenous NT and NS may therefore represent a novel therapy for maintaining gastrointestinal tract integrity. An exogenous NS mixture of thymidine, cytidine, guanosine and inosine (T-CGI) increases the proliferation rate of rat intestinal epithelial cell line 6 (IEC-6) cells, while a mixture of uridine, cytidine, guanosine and inosine (U-CGI) reduces IEC-6 proliferation independently of necrosis or apoptosis. This study aimed to analyze the effects of exogenous NS on IEC-6 differentiation under proliferation and differentiation conditions. To this end, IEC-6 cells were treated with NS T-CGI and NS U-CGI mixtures under low- and high-density conditions. Enterocyte differentiation was also assessed by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Under proliferative conditions, villin expression was reduced in all cases, but NS-treated cells showed twofold the expression observed in NS-free cultures (controls) and more frequently showed characteristics of mature enterocytes. When cells were grown after confluence, villin expression, total protein production and morphology of NS-treated cultures were more differentiated compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that T-CGI and U-CGI mixtures promote IEC-6 cell differentiation, with no significant differences between them. Unlike previous authors, we obtained this effect in cultures without an exogenous extracellular matrix such as Matrigel, reducing the variability among independent assays.

Added to the N4H Database 19/02/2010

Salibir et al. Effect of nucleotide supplementation on Lymphocyte DNA damage induced by dietary oxidative stress in pigs. Animal Science, 2005, 81, 135-140.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of nucleotide supplementation on the oxidative stress induce by a high proportion of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pigs. Twenty-four male growing pigs were penned individually and after an adaptation period divided into three groups. All groups received isocaloric daily rations composed of a basal diet supplemented with either: starch (CONT), linseed oil (LIN) and LIN and nucleotides (LIN + NUC).The experimental period lasted 21 days. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the degree of lymphocyte nuclear DNA damage, the urine malondialdehyde (MDA) excretion rate, erythrocyte glutathione persoxidase concentration and the total anti-oxidant status of plasma. Malondialdehyde concentrations in the blood and MDA urinary excretion rates were higher (P<0.01) in animals supplemented with LIN and LIN + NUC compared with CONT animals. The degree of DNA damage in the LIN-supplemented animals was also higher (P<0.01). Compared with the LIN-supplemented animals, nucleotide supplementation reduced (P<0.01) the degree of DNA damage in lymphocytes to the level of the CONT group. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidise concentration and plasma total anti-oxidant status were similar across treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that nucleotide supplementation effectively eliminates the genotoxic effects of high PUFA intakes on blood lymphocytes and demonstrates new evidence of the immunonutritive effect of nucleotides.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Sánchez CL, Cubero J, Sánchez J, Chanclón B, Rivero M, Rodrí­guez AB, Barriga C. The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers. Nutr Neurosci. 2009 Feb;12(1):2-8.

Abstract: Breast-milk contains a potent mixture of diverse components, such as the non-protein nitrogen fraction which includes nucleotides, whose variation in levels is evident throughout lactation. In addition, these substances play an important role in sleep homeostasis. In the present study, human milk samples were analyzed using a capillary electrophoresis system. The rhythmicity of each nucleotide was studied by cosinor analysis. It was found that the nucleotides 5'AMP, 5'GMP, 5'CMP, and 5'IMP have significant (P < 0.05) circadian rhythms, the acrophases of the first two being during the night, and of the latter two during the day. While 5'UMP did not show a clear circadian rhythm, there was an increase in its levels at night. In conclusion, the rise in nocturnal levels of 5'AMP, 5'GMP, and 5'UMP could be involved in inducing the 'hypnotic' action of breast-milk at night in the infant.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12

Torres M et al. Dietary nucleotides have cytoprotective properties in rat liver damaged by thiomacetamie. Life Sciences Vol. 62, 1, p 13-22. 1998.

Abstract: Liver cirrhosis has been induced with thioacetamide administered via different routes in rats and other species. The oral intake of thioacetamide causes nodular liver cirrhosis in rats characterized by extensive fibrosis occupying most of the hepatic parenchyma. To characterize the cytological features of cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide, and the degree of recovery obtained with dietary nucleotides, we made a morphometric study of the hepatocytes in rats administered 300 mg/l of thioacetamide for 4 months, and in rats receiving the same hepatotoxic treatment but allowed a 2-weeks recovery period on a nucleotide-free diet or a 250 mg/100g nucleotide-supplemented diet. Thioacetamide caused to cell damage and affected the ultrastructure of hepatocytes leading to a decrease in cytoplasmic area together with increased nuclear and nucleolar size. Dietary supplementation with nucleotides favoured recovery, restoring the cytoplasmic (TN=491.7=/-9.6 vs TAA=305.1+/-3.7) nuclear (73.6+/-2.8 vs 97.4+/-2.9), and nucleolar area of damaged hepatocytes (5.6+/-0.3 vs 14.0+/-0.9). The injury from thioacetamide intake increased liver collagen, but dietary nucleotides prevented hepatic deposition of this protein. This study supports the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with nucleotides is decisive in ensuring hepatocyte recovery after thioacetamide-induced liver damage, and that dietary nucleotides have antifibrotic properties.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Truat, T. Nucleotide Synthesis De Novo. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, 2002 Nature publishing Group.

Abstract: Nucleotides are ubiquitous molecules that function in many biochemical processes as building blocks, or as a source of energy, or as cofactors. This central role requires their continued biosynthesis from readily available precursors, and this process is defined as de novo nucleotide synthesis.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Wang L, Liu J, Lv H, Zhang X, Shen L. Effects of nucleotides supplementation of infant formulas on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid composition: A meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 23; 10(6): e0127758.

Objective: Nucleotides (NTs) have been added to infant formulas for several years due to their health benefits. However, studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between NTs and fatty acid (FA) composition. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of NTs supplementation of infant formula on erythrocyte and plasma FA composition.
Methods: Randomized controlled trials that evaluated the association between NTs supplementation and FA composition and were published before October 2014 were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q and I2 tests.
Results: Eight studies (364 infants) were included in the meta-analysis. NTs supplementation did not affect the concentrations of total saturated FAs (SMD= 0.05; 95% CI= -0.23-0.32; P = 0.75) or total monounsaturated FAs (SMD= -0.01; 95% CI= -0.28-0.27; P = 0.95) in erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocyte total n-3 (SMD= 0.15; 95% CI= -0.11-0.41; P = 0.27) and n-6 PUFA (SMD= -0.16; 95% CI= -0.42-0.10, P = 0.22) concentrations did not increase with NTs supplementation. The concentrations of erythrocyte n-3 PUFA (18:3, 20:5, 22:5, and 22:6) and n-6 PUFA (18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) were not affected by NTs supplementation. NTs significantly increased plasma concentrations of 18:2 n-6 (SMD= 0.90; 95% CI= 0.47-1.33; P < 0.0001), 20:3 n-6 (SMD= 0.56; 95% CI= 0.14-0.97; P = 0.009), and 20:4 n-6 PUFA (SMD= 0.92; 95% CI= 0.50-1.35; P < 0.0001), and significantly decreased the concentration of plasma 18:3 n-3 PUFA (SMD= -0.60; 95% CI -1.12 to -0.09; P = 0.02). No effect was obtained on plasma 20:2 n-6 PUFA concentrations (SMD= 0.06; 95 % CI, -1.03 to -0.2; P = 0.93).
Conclusions: Our meta-analysis revealed that NTs supplementation significantly increased plasma 18:2 n-6, 20:3 n-6, and 20:4 n-6 PUFA concentrations in infants, but did not affect erythrocyte FA composition.

Added to the N4H Database 16/03/2022

Xu M, Liang R, Guo Q, Wang S, Zhao M, Zhang Z, Wang J, Li Y. Dietary nucleotides extend the life span in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Nutr Health & Ageing. 2013 Mar; 17(3): 223-9.

Objective: To observe the effect of prolonged feeding of dietary nucleotides (NTs), and to clarify the effect of NTs on life extension of Sprague-Dawley rats.
Methods: There were 50 Sprague-Dawley rats in each group (male:female ratio=1:1), which were fed diets supplemented with NTs at concentrations of 0%, 0.01%, 0.04%, 0.16% and 0.64% (wt/wt) from the age of 4 weeks until natural death. We investigated the moribundity and mortality, survival time, spontaneous tumor incidence, and serum oxidative status.
Results: NTs have significantly influence body weight of first 3 month old and food consumption of male rats throughout the life span; it did dose-dependently inhibit the age-related decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the age-related increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation product in both sexes. NTs notably increased the mean life span, and the maximal life span. Compared to the control group, the incidence of death from tumors was decreased in NTs groups of both sexes.
Conclusions: Long-term feeding of NTs could dose-dependently increase life span in Sprague-Dawley rats, especially, the tumor-bearing ones. Moreover, the antioxidative property of NTs may be responsible for the increased life span.

Added to the N4H Database 16/03/2022

Xu M, Ma Y, Xu L, Xu Y, Li Y. Developmental effects of dietary nucleotides in second-generation weaned rats. J Med Food. 2013 Dec; 16(12): 1146-52.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate dietary effects of dietary nucleotides (NTs) on developmental parameters in second-generation Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental design was set up as six groups, including one control and five nucleotide administered groups, doses ranged from 0.01% to 1.28% nucleotides. First-generation (F0) rats were divided into two terms: (1) fed for 90-day study; (2) mated for offspring (F1). After weaning, each group of second-generation F1 rats was fed the control diet. Evaluating parameters were weight gain and food utilization ratios of rats, hematological and biochemical parameters, and organ pathology. The results showed that there was a greater weight gain and food utilization ratio in weaned rats (F0 and F1). Furthermore, weight gain and food utilization ratios were increased in the first 2 weeks of F1 male and the first week of F1 female rats. There were no significant changes in blood indicators of NT groups with the exception of decrease in aspartate aminotransferase and serum uric acid levels. Overall, it was demonstrated that NT supplements could promote the early growth and development at a 0.01% dose. Although NTs may have cumulative reproductive effects, they were safe even at a high-dose supplementation. Additionally, NT supplementation could promote restoration and optimize liver function.

Added to the N4H Database 07/10/2020

Yokoyama H et al. Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides do not affect tumor incidence but reduce amyloidosis incidence in B6C3F1 mice irradiated with californium-252 Nutrition 20: 383-389, 2004.

Objective: We investigated the effects of a dietary mixture of nucleosides and nucleotides (NS) on the systemic incidence rates of postirradiation carcinogenesis and non-neoplastic lesions in mice.
Methods: Five-week-old male B6C3F1 mice were fed AIN-76B Purified Diet supplemented with NS for 1 wk and 13 mo before and after irradiation of neutron with californium-252 ((252)Cf); specifically NS was added to the AIN-76B Purified Diet (without nucleotide) to obtain a final concentration of 0%, 0.5%, or 2.5% NS. A commercial stock diet was also given to mice, and half of the mice were irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mice were used for reference controls.
Results: The incidence of liver tumors in each NS group was lower than that in the reference control group (P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the 0%, 0.5%, and 2.5% NS groups. In contrast, the incidence rate of mice with non-neoplastic lesions in the 0% NS group was significantly higher than the reference control group (P < 0.05). This higher incidence of mice with non-neoplastic lesions was significantly decreased upon supplementation of the nucleotide-free diet with 0.5% or 2.5% NS (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Of the non-neoplastic lesions observed, the incidence of amyloidosis was decreased significantly upon supplementation of the nucleotide-free diet with 0.5% NS (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Supplementation of a nucleotide-free diet with NS inhibits the development of non-neoplastic lesions, such as those associated with amyloidosis, without promoting the carcinogenesis induced by (252)Cf irradiation.

Added to the N4H Database 01/11/08

Yamamoto S, Wang MF, Adjei AA, Ameho CK. Role of nucleosides and nucleotides in the immune system, gut reparation after injury, and brain function. Nutrition. 1997 Apr;13(4):372-4.

Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates the importance of nucleosides and nucleotides in the maintenance of functions of the bone marrow hematopoietic cells, intestinal mucosa, and the brain, which have limited de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases. We have found that nucleosides and nucleotides stimulate hemopoieses and increase peripheral neutrophil counts in mice treated with cyclophosphoamide. Intraperitoneal administration of nucleosides and nucleotides decreased bacterial translocation, the number of colony-forming units, and increased survival against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro immune studies in mice showed that nucleosides and nucleotides increase the delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity and the popliteal lymph node blastogenic response to antigens, allogens, and mitogens. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of nucleosides and nucleotides reduced endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation and improved injury to the gut in protein-deficient mice. However, oral administration of nucleosides and nucleotides in experimental colitis resulted in a worsening of colitic conditions and increased interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in inflamed colonic portions, indicating the pro-inflammatory activities of nucleosides and nucleotides. Memory-deficient senescence-accelerated mice and mice with dementia showed improved memory with dietary nucleosides and nucleotides supplementation. These results indicate that supplementation with nucleosides and nucleotides is beneficial to the functions of the system and the brain. However, beneficial effects to the gut appear to depend on the type of damage sustained by the gut.

Added to the N4H database 25/11/12