Mode of Action

RNA and nucleotides have been shown to have stimulatory effects on recovery from hepatectomy in animals. They have also been shown to stimulate intestinal repair, in animals.

The mechanism of the tissue-regenerating effects of RNA and nucleotides is unclear. Possibly the regenerating activity may be explained, in part, by the nucleotides serving as precursors of nucleic acid synthesis via the salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis. Utilization of the salvage pathways may spare the energetic cost of de novo nucleotide synthesis.
 

Effect on Immunity

Supplementary nucleotides have been demonstrated to affect a number of immune functions, including reversing malnutrition and starvation-induced immunosuppression, enhancing T-cell maturation and function, enhancing natural killer cell activity, improving delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, aiding in resistance to such infectious agents as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and modulating T-cell responses toward type 1 CD4 helper lymphocytes or Th1 cells.

Mice fed a nucleotide-free diet have both impaired cellular and humoral immune responses. Addition of dietary nucleotides restores both types of responses. Both RNA, which can be considered a delivery form of nucleotides, and ribonucleotides were used in these studies. The mechanism of the immune-enhancing activity of nucleic acids/nucleotides is unclear.
 

Effect on the Intestine

Improvement of growth and differentiation of the gut lining:

    • Increased weight of the intestinal mucosa
    • Accelerated healing of lesions
    • Elongation of intestinal villi up to 25%
    • Increased activity of intestinal enzymes
    • Improved utilisation and uptake of nutrients
    • Improved recovery of the intestine after starvation or diarrhoea
       
Mice fed a neclotide-free diet – after 3 weeks
70 fold magnification Haematoxilin/Eosin staining
Mice fed dietary nucleotides – after 3 weeks
70 fold magnification Haematoxilin/Eosin staining

Enhancement of the intestinal flora:

  • Growth stimulation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli
     

Effect on the Liver

RNA and nucleotides have been shown to have stimulatory effects on recovery from hepatectomy in animals.